Reading Question

Reading Question 4-5

Fourth Meeting
The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and segmented abdomen. Ordinarily, the thorax bears three pairs of legs and a single or double pair of wings. The vision of most adult insects is specialized through two large compound eyes and multiple simple eyes. Features of an insect’s mouth parts are used in classifying insects into types. Biting mouth parts, called mandibles, such as the mouth parts found in grasshoppers and beetles, are common among insects.
Behind the mandibles are located the maxillae, or lower jaw parts, which serve to direct food into the mouth between the jaws. A labrum above and one below are similar to another animal’s upper and lower lips. In an insect with a sucking mouth function, the mandibles, maxillae, labrum, and labium are modified in such a way that they constitute a tube through which liquid such as water, blood, or flower nectar can be drawn. In a butterfly or moth, this coiled drinking tube is called the proboscis because of its resemblance, in miniature, to the trunk of an elephant or a very large nose.
Composed chiefly of modified maxillae fitted together, the insect’s proboscis can be flexed and extended to reach nectar deep in a flower. In mosquitoes or aphids, mandibles and maxillae are modified to sharp stylets with which the insect can drill through surfaces like human or vegetable skin membranes to reach juice. In a housefly, the expanding labium forms a spongelike mouth pad that it can use to stamp over the surface of food, sopping up food particles and juices. The housefly’s labium is elongated and forms a pad at the end. The pad is placed on the food, saliva is secreted and the food is dissolved and sucked up.
Insects, the most numerous creatures on our planet, are also them most adaptable. They require little food because they are small. They easily find shelter and protection in small crevices in trees and surface geological formations. Species of insects can evolve quickly because of their rapid reproduction cycle; they live in every climate, some making their homes in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment. An active part of the natural food cycle, insects provide nutrition for animals and devour waste products of other life forms.

Question 4
1. What is the best title for this passage?
a. an insect’s Environment
b. the Structure of an Insect
c. grasshoppers and Beetles
D. THE STAGES OF LIFE OF AN INSECT

2. How are insect classified?
a. by the environment in which they live
b. by the food they eat
C. BY THE STRUCTURE OF THE MOUTH
d. by the number and type of wings

3. The word common in paragraph 2 is closet in meaning to
a. Normal
b. Rare
c. Import
d. Necessary

4. The author compares labrum and labium to
A. AN UPPER AND LOWER LIP
b. mandibles
c. maxillae
d. jaws

5. What is the proboscis?
a. nectar
B. A TUBE CONSTRUCTED OF MODIFIED MAXILLAE
c. a kind of butterfly
d. kind of flower

6. Which of the following have mandibles and maxillae that have been modified to sharp stylets?
a. grasshoppers
b. butterflies
C. MOSQUITOES
d. houseflies

7. The phrase drill through in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by
a. Penetrate
b. Saturate
c. Explore
d. Distinguish

8. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to
a. pad
b. housefly
c. food
D. MOUTH

9. What is the purpose of this passage?
a. to complain
b. to persuade
c. to entertain
D. TO INFORM

Fifth Meeting
During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone were not only feminists who fought for the rights of women but also fervent abolitionists who fought to do away with slavery. These brave people were social leaders who supported the rights of both women and blacks. They were fighting against a belief that voting should be tied to land ownership, and because land was owned by men, and in some cases by their widows, only those who held the greatest stake in government, that is the male landowners, were considered worthy of the vote. Women did not conform to the requirements.
A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. Probably more than any other movement, abolitionism offered women a previously denied entry into politics. They became involved primarily in order to better their living conditions and improve the conditions of others. However, they gained the respect of those they convinced and also earned the right to be considered equal citizens.
When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women. Discouraged but resolved, feminists worked tirelessly to influence more and more women to demand the right to vote. In 1869, the Wyoming Territory had yielded to demands by feminists, but the states on the East Coast resisted more stubbornly than before. A women’s suffrage bill had been presented to every Congress since 1878, but it continually failed to pass until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote.

Question 5
1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
a. the wyoming territory
b. the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments
c. abolitionists
D. WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE

2. The word ban in paragraph 1 most nearly means to
a. encourage
b. publish
c. prohibit
D. LIMIT

3. The word primarily in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
A. ABOVE ALL
b. somewhat
c. finally
d. always

4. What had occurred shortly after the Civil
A. THE WYOMING TERRITORY WAS ADMITTED TO THE UNION
b. A women’s suffrage bill was introduced in Congress
c. The eastern states resisted the end of the war
d. Black people were granted the right to vote

5. The word suffrage in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?
a. pain
b. citizenship
c. freedom from bondage
D. THE RIGHT TO VOTE

6. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to
a. bill
b. congress
C. NINETEENTH AMENDMENT
d. vote

7. What does the Nineteenth Amendment guarantee?
a. Voting rights for blacks
b. citizenship for blacks
C. VOTING RIGHTS WOMEN
d. citizenship for women

8. When were women allowed to vote throughout the United States?
a. After 1866
b. After 1870
C. AFTER 1878
d. After 1920

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